The following published papers are on studies which have been sponsored, in full or in part, by the International Isocyanate Institute, Inc. They are available through normal library services. Please note that items published in conference proceedings are not peer-reviewed.

The references are grouped according to subject:


Poole A; Chappelle AH; Collins MA
Mechanisms for the development of rat lung tumors following inhalation exposures to MDI
Poster, Society of Toxicology 53 rd Annual  Meeting and ToxExpo, Phoenix, AZ, 23-27 March, 2014

Prueitt RL; Goodman JE; Rhomberg LR
Hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence evaluation of the human carcinogenicity of toluene diisocyanate
Poster, Society of Toxicology 52 nd Annual Meeeting and ToxExpo, San Antonio, TX, 10-14 March, 2013

Luna LG; Green BJ; Zhang F; Siegel PD; Bartels MJ
Enrichment and measurement of a signature MDI HSA peptide adduct
Poster, CIRPD Conference on Isocyanates and Health: Past, Present and Future, 3-4 April, 2013

Arnold SM; Collins MA; Graham C; Jolly AT; Parod RJ; Poole A; Schupp T; Shiotsuka RN; Woolhiser MR
Risk assessment for consumer exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) derived from polyurethane flexible foam
Reg.Toxicol.Pharmacol., Vol. 64, (3), Dec., 2012, 504-15

Sielken RL; Bretzlaff RS; Valdez-Flores C; Parod R
Statistical comparison of carcinogenic effects and dose-response relationships in rats and mice for 2,4-toluene diamine to those ascribed to toluene diisocyanate
Hum.Ecol.Risk Assess., Vol. 18, (6), Nov., 2012, 1315-37

Schupp T and Collins MA
Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) airway effects and dose-responses in different animal models
EXCLI J., Vol.11, 24 Jul., 2012, 416-35

Pauluhn J
Interrelating the acute and chronic mode of action of inhaled methylenediphenyldiisocyanate (MDI) in rats assisted by computational toxicology.
Reg.Toxicol.Pharmacol., Vol. 61, 2011, 351-64

Pauluhn J and Poole A
Brown Norway rat asthma model of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (MD): determination of the elicitation threshold concentration of after inhalation sensitization
Toxicol., Vol. 281, 2011, 15-24

Hoffman HD; Leibold E; Ehnes C; Fabian E; Landsiedel R; Gamer A; Poole A
Dermal uptake and excretion of 14C-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and 14C-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in male rats. Clinical signs and histopathology following dermal exposure of male rats to TDI
Toxicol.Lett., Vol 199, 2010, 364-71

Pauluhn J
Brown Norway rat asthma model of diphenylmethane - 4,4'- diisocyanate (MDI): analysis of the elicitation dose-response relationship
Toxicol.Sci. Vol.104 (2) Aug, 2008, 320-31

Ott MG; Jolly AT; Burkert AL; Brown WE
Issues in diisocyanate antibody testing
Critical Reviews in Toxicology, Vol. 37, 2007, 567-585

Zeiger E and Woolhiser M
The genetic toxicity of diisocyanates in humans and laboratory animals
Poster presented at Society of Toxicology 46 th Annual Meeting, Charlotte , NC , 25-29 March 2007

Bernstein DI; Ott MG; Woolhiser M; Lummus Z; Graham C
Evaluation of antibody binding to diisocyanate protein conjugates in a general population
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol., Vol. 97, Sept., 2006, 357-64

Malo J-L; L’Archevéque J; Lummus Z; Bernstein D
Changes in specific IgE and IgG and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in workers with occupational asthma caused by diisocyanates and removed from exposure
J.Allergy Clin.Immunol., Vol. 118, (2), Aug., 2006, 530-3

Pauluhn J; Brown WE; Hext P; Leibold E; Leng G
Analysis of biomarkers in rats and dogs exposed to polymeric methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) and its glutathione adduct
Toxicology, Vol. 222, (3), 2006, 202-12

Bernstein DI; Ott MG; Koke M; Graham C; Woolhiser M; Lummus ZL
Diisocyanate antigen specific antibodies are detectable in a non-worker population without diisocyanate exposure
Poster presented at American Thoracic Society 100th International Conference, San Diego, 20-25 May, 2005

Gledhill A; Wake A; Hext P; Leibold E; Shiotsuka R
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of an inhalation dose of [14C] 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate in the male rat
Xenobiotica, Vol.35, (3), Mar., 2005, 273-92

Pauluhn J
Concentration-dependence of stability of aerosols of monomeric diphenyl-methane-4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI)
Poster presented at Society of Toxicology 44th Annual Meeting, New Orleans, 6-10 March, 2005

Pauluhn J; Woolhiser MR; Bloemen L
Repeated inhalation challenge with diphenylmethane-4,4’-diisocyanate in Brown Norway rats leads to time-related increase of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage after topical induction
Inhal.Toxicol., Vol.17, 2005, 67-78

Lee Y-M; Kim H-A; Park H-S; Lee S-K; Nahm D-H
Exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) induces IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells: effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines
J.Kor.Med.Sci., Vol. 18, (6), Dec., 2003, 809-12

Lummus ZL; Park HS; Brown WE; Jolly AT; Biagini RE; Wanner MA; Lewis DM; Burkert AL; Daftarian H; Bernstein DI
Interlaboratory agreement of toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-specific serum antibody results are strongly influenced by antigen characteristics
J.Allergy Clin.Immunol., Vol.111, (2), Suppl., Feb., 2003, S193, Abs.501

Collins MA
Toxicology of toluene diisocyanate
Appl.Occup.Environ.Hyg., Vol.17, (12), Dec., 2002, 846-55

Kilgour JD; Rattray NJ; Foster J; Soames A; Hext PM
Pulmonary responses and recovery following single and repeated inhalation exposure of rats to polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate aerosols
J.Appl.Toxicol., Vol.22, 2002, 371-85

Lemière C; Romeo P; Chaboillez S; Tremblay C; Malo J-L
Airway inflammation and functional changes after exposure to different concentrations of isocyanates
J.Allergy Clin.Immunol., Vol.110, (4), Oct., 2002, 641-6

Reisser M; Schmidt BF; Brown WE
Synthesis, characterization, and solvolysis studies of mono- and bis-S-(glutathionyl) adducts of methylene-bis-phenylisocyanate (MDI)
Chem.Res.Toxicol., Vol.15, (10), 2002, 1235-41

Gledhill A; Wake A; Hext P; Leibold E; Shiotsuka R
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of an inhalation dose of [14C]-MDI in the male rat
Poster presented at Eurotox 2002 Congr., Budapest, 15-18 Sept., 2002

Park H-S; Lee S-K; Kim H-Y; Nahm D-H; Kim S-S
Specific immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G antibodies to toluene diisocyanate-human serum albumin conjugate: useful markers for predicting long-term prognosis in toluene diisocyanate-induced asthma
Clin.Exp.Allergy, Vol.32, (4), 2002, 551-5

Park H-S; Cho S-H; Hong C-S; Kim Y-Y
Isocyanate-induced occupational asthma in far-east Asia: pathogenesis to prognosis
Clin.Exp.Allergy, Vol.32, (2), 2002, 198-204

Nakashima K; Takeshita T; Morimoto K
Diagnosis and prevention of diseases induced by isocyanate

Environ.Health Prevent.Med., Vol.7, (2), 2002, 40-6

Bernstein DI; Cartier A; Côté J; Malo J-L; Boulet L-P; Wanner M; Milot J; L'Archevéque J; Trudeau C; Lummus Z
Diisocyanate antigen-stimulated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 synthesis has greater test efficiency than specific antibodies for identification of diisocyanate asthma
Amer.J.Respir.Crit.Care Med., Vol.166, 2002, 445-50

Feron VJ; Kittel B; Kuper CF; Ernst H; Rittinghausen S; Muhle H; Koch W; Gamer A; Mallett AK; Hoffmann HD
Chronic pulmonary effects of respirable methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) aerosol in rats: combination of findings from two bioassays
Arch.Toxicol., Vol. 75, (3), May, 2001, 159-75

Pauluhn J; Gollapudi B; Hammond T; Linscombe A, Thiel A; Zischka-Kuhbier D
Bone marrow micronucleus assay in Brown-Norway rats exposed to diphenyl-methane 4,4'-diisocyanate
Arch.Toxicol., Vol. 75, 2001, 234-42

Park H-S; Kim H-Y; Lee S-K; Kim S-S; Nahm D-H
Diverse profiles of specific IgE response to toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-human serum albumin conjugate in TDI-induced asthma patients
J.Kor.Med.Sci., Vol. 16, (1), Feb., 2001, 57-61

Gamer A; Hellwig J; Doe JE; Tyl RW
Prenatal toxicity of inhaled polymeric methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) aerosols in pregnant Wistar rats
Toxicol.Sci., Vol. 54, 2000, 431-40

Brown WE; Gamaluddin S; Kennedy AL
Antibody testing: analysis of the specificity of antibody detection in a non-diisocyanate-exposed population
Paper, Symposium on Isocyanates: Sampling, Analysis and Health Effects, Orlando, 26-27 Oct., 2000. ASTM STP 1408, Lesage J et al. eds.

Chappelle AH; Shiotsuka RN; Bartels MJ
Some limitations in the use of urine biomonitoring for measuring TDI exposure
Paper, Symposium on Isocyanates: Sampling, Analysis and Health Effects, Orlando, 26-27 Oct., 2000. ASTM STP 1408, Lesage J et al. eds.

Jolly A; Bramann D; Hoffarth H-P
Patch testing for isocyanates
Paper, Symposium on Isocyanates: Sampling, Analysis and Health Effects, Orlando, 26-27 Oct., 2000. ASTM STP 1408, Lesage J et al. eds.

Aul DJ; Bhaumik A; Kennedy AL; Brown WE; Lesage J; Malo J-L
Specific IgG response to monomeric and polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate conjugates in subjects with respiratory reactions to isocyanates
J.Allergy Clin.Immunol., Vol. 103, (5), Pt. 1, May, 1999, 749-55

Bernstein DI; Jolly A
Current diagnostic methods for diisocyanate induced occupational asthma
Amer.J.Ind.Med., Vol. 36, 1999, 459-68

Gamaluddin S; Kennedy AL; Malo J-L; Brown WE
Analysis of the specificity of antibody detection in relation to diisocyanate asthma
Toxicol.Sci., Vol. 48, (1-S), Mar., Suppl., 1999, Abstr. 1962

Pauluhn J; Dearman R; Doe J; Hext P; Landry TD
Respiratory hypersensitivity to diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate in guinea pigs: comparison with trimellitic anhydride
Inhal.Toxicol., Vol. 11, 1999, 187-214

Pauluhn J; Emura M; Mohr U; Popp A; Rosenbruch M
Two-week inhalation toxicity of polymeric diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (PMDI) in rats: analysis of biochemical and morphological markers of early pulmonary response
Inhal.Toxicol., Vol. 11, 1999, 1143-63

Park H-S; Jung K-S; Kim H-Y; Nahm D-H; Kang K-R
Neutrophil activation following TDI bronchial challenges to the airway secretion from subjects with TDI-induced asthma
Clin.Exp.Allergy, Vol. 29, (10), 1999, 1395-401

Park H-S
New advances in the pathogenesis of isocyanate-induced occupational asthma
Med.Prog., May, 1999, 21-4

Tyl RW; Fisher LC; Dodd DE; Pritts IM; Kubena MF; Losco PE; Troup CM; Lyon JP; Landry TD
Developmental toxicity evaluation of inhaled toluene diisocyanate vapor in CD rats
Toxicol.Sci., Vol. 52, 1999, 248-57

Tyl RW; Neeper-Bradley TL; Fisher LC; Dodd DE; Pritts IM; Losco PE; Lyon JP; Landry TD
Two-generation reproductive toxicity study of inhaled toluene diisocyanate vapor in CD rats
Toxicol.Sci., Vol. 52, 1999, 258-68

Wester RC; Hui X; Landry T; Maibach HI
In vivo skin decontamination of methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI): soap and water ineffective compared to propylene glycol, polyglycol-based cleanser, and corn oil
Toxicol.Sci., Vol. 48, 1999, 1-4

Desrosiers M; Nguyen B; Ghezzo H; Leblanc C; Malo JL
Nasal response in subjects undergoing challenges by inhaling occupational agents causing asthma through the nose and mouth
Allergy, Vol. 53, 1998, 840-8.

Vock EH; Vamvakas S; Gahlmann R; Lutz WK
Investigation of the induction of DNA double-strand breaks by methylenediphenyl-4,4'-diisocyanate in cultured human lung epithelial cells
Toxicol.Sci., Vol. 46, 1998, 83-9.

Vamvakas S; Vock EH; Lutz WK
On the role of DNA double-strand breaks in toxicity and carcinogenesis
Crit.Rev.Toxicol., Vol. 27, (2), 1997, 155-74.

Lemière C; Cartier A; Dolovich J; Chan-Yeung M; Grammer L; Ghezzo H; L'Archeveque L; Malo JL
Outcome of specific bronchial responsiveness to occupational agents after removal from exposure
Amer.J.Resp.Crit.Care Med., Vol. 154, 1996, 329-33.

Doe JE; Hoffmann HD
Toluene diisocyanate: an assessment of carcinogenic risk following oral and inhalation exposure
Toxicol.Ind.Health, Vol. 11, (1), 1995, 13-32

Kennedy AL; Lastbom L; Skarping G; Dalene M; Ryrfeldt A; Moldeus P; Brown WE
Analysis of the reactivity of [14-C]toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in an isolated, perfused lung model
Chemico-Biol.Interac., Vol. 98, 1995, 167-83.

Kennedy AL; Wilson TR; Stock MF; Alarie Y; Brown WE
Distribution and reactivity of inhaled 14C-labeled toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in rats
Arch.Toxicol., Vol. 68, (7), 1994, 434-43.

Reuzel PGJ; Kuper CF; Feron VJ; Appelman LM; Löser E
Acute, subacute and subchronic inhalation toxicity studies of respirable polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (polymeric MDI) aerosol in rats
Fund.Appl.Toxicol., Vol. 22, 1994, 186-94.

Reuzel PGJ; Arts JHE; Lomax LG; Kuijpers MHM; Kuper CF; Gembardt C; Feron VJ; Löser E
Chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity study of respirable polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (polymeric MDI) aerosol in rats
Fund.Appl.Toxicol., Vol. 22, 1994, 195-210.

Kennedy AL; Stock MF; Alarie Y; Brown WE
Uptake and distribution of 14C during and following inhalation exposure to radioactive toluene diisocyanate
Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol., Vol. 100, 1989, 280-92.

Ader AW; Carney IF; Loeser E
Risk evaluation of chronic exposure to toluene diisocyanate based on long-term animal studies
SPI/FSK Polyurethanes World Congress, Aachen, 29 Sept. -2 Oct., 1987, 188-92.

Thorne PS; Hillebrand JA; Lewis GR; Karol MH
Contact sensitivity by diisocyanates: potencies and cross-reactivities
Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol., Vol. 87, 1987, 155-65.

Karol MH
Hypersensitivity to isocyanates
In, Dean J et al., eds. Immunotoxicology and Immunopharmacology, Raven Press, 1985, 475-488.

Rampy LW; Loeser E; Lyon JP; Carney I
Two carcinogenicity studies of toluene diisocyanate
Proc. SPI 6th Int.Tech./Marketing Conf., San Diego, California, 2-4 Nov., 1983, 413-415.

Loeser E
Long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity studies with 2,4/2,6-toluene-diisocyanate (80/20) in rats and mice
Toxicol.Letters, Vol. 15, 1983, 71-81

O'Brien IM; Harries MG; Burge PS; Pepys J
Toluene di-isocyanate-induced asthma. I. Reactions to TDI, MDI, HDI and histamine
Clin.Allergy, Vol. 9, 1979, 1-6.

O'Brien IM; Newman-Taylor AJ; Burge PS; Harries MG; Fawcett IW; Pepys J
TDI-induced asthma. II. Inhalation challenge tests and bronchial reactivity studies
Clin.Allergy, Vol. 9, 1979, 7-15.


Clark RL; Bugler J; Paddle GM; Chamberlain JD; Allport DC
A 17-year epidemiological study on changes in lung function in toluene
diisocyanate foam workers

Int.Arch.Occup.Environ.Health, Vol. 76, 2003, 295-301

Sorahan T; Nichols L
Mortality and cancer morbidity of production workers in the UK flexible polyurethane foam industry: updated findings, 1958-98
Occup.Environ.Med., Vol.59, (11), Nov., 2002, 751-8

Clark RL; Bugler J; McDermott M; Hill ID; Allport DC; Chamberlain JD
An epidemiology study of lung function changes of toluene diisocyanate foam workers in the United Kingdom
Int.Arch.Occup.Environ.Health, Vol. 71, 1998, 169-79.

Sorahan T; Pope D
Mortality and cancer morbidity of production workers in the United Kingdom flexible polyurethane foam industry
Brit.J.Ind.Med., Vol. 50, 1993, 528-36.

Omae K; Higashi T; Nakadate T; Tsugane S; Nakaza M; Sakurai H
Four-year follow-up of effects of toluene diisocyanate exposure on the respiratory system in polyurethane foam manufacturing workers. II. Four-year changes in the effects on the respiratory system
Int.Arch.Occup.Environ.Health, Vol. 63, 1992, 565-69.

Omae K; Nakadate T; Higashi T; Nakaza M; Aizawa Y; Sakurai H
Four-year follow-up of effects of toluene diisocyanate exposure on the respiratory system in polyurethane foam manufacturing workers. I. Study design and results of the first cross-sectional observation
Int.Arch.Occup.Environ.Health, Vol. 63, 1992, 559-64.

Omae K
Two-year observation of pulmonary function in workers exposed to low concentrations of toluene diisocyanate
Int.Arch.Occup.Environ.Health, Vol. 55, 1984, 1-12.


Bossuyt B; Carpenter K; Ponizovsky A; Schaefer E; West R
Fate of 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) in freshwater and estuarine environments
Poster presented at SETAC 35 th Annual Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, 9 Nov 2014

Egeler P; Henry KS; Riedhammer C
Potential effects of food addition to sediment on test conditions in sediment toxicity tests
J.Soils & Sed., Vol.10, (3), Apr., 2010, 377-88

Nozaka T; Matsuura T; Maeda M; Tadokoro H
Effects of toluene-2,4-diamine on red sea bream, Pagrus major  : biochemical and histological evaluation
Environ. Sci., Vol. 14, Supplement, 2007, 1-8

West RJ; Henry KS; Davis JW
Examination of feeding modes and sediment equilibration time used in evaluating chronic toxicity of toluenediamine (TDA) to sediment-dwelling organisms
Poster presented at SETAC 4 th World Congress, Portland, Oregon, 15 Nov., 2004

Sendijarevic V; Sendijarevic A; Sendijarevic I; Bailey RE; Pemberton D; Reimann KA
Hydrolytic stability of toluene diisocyanate and polymeric methylenediphenyl diisocyanate based polyureas under environmental considerations
Environ.Sci.Technol., Vol 38, (4), 2004, 1066-72

Tury B; Pemberton D; Bailey RE
Fate and potential environmental effects of methylenediphenyl diisocyanate and toluene diisocyanate released into the atmosphere
J.Air Waste Manage.Assoc., Vol.53, Jan., 2003, 61-6

Yakabe Y; Hiromatsu K; Kawahara K; Nakahara M
Determination of 1-octanol/water partition coefficients of isocyanate compounds by an HPLC method
Toxicol.Environ.Chem., Vol. 77, 2000, 199-206

Yakabe Y; Henderson KM; Thompson WC; Pemberton D; Tury B; Bailey RE
Fate of methylenediphenyl diisocyanate and toluene diisocyanate in the aquatic environment
Environ.Sci.Technol., Vol. 33, (15), 1999, 2579-83

Cowen WF; Gastinger AM; Spanier CE; Buckel JR; Bailey RE
Sorption and microbial degradation of toluenediamines and methylenedianiline in soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions
Env.Sci.Tech., Vol. 32, (5), 1998, 598-603.

Heimbach F; Jaeger K; Sporenberg W
Fate and biological effects of polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate and homologs) in small artificial ponds
Ecotox.Environ.Safety, Vol. 33, 1996, 143-53.

Asakura S; Okazaki S
Biodegradation of toluene diamine (TDA) in activated sludge acclimated with aniline and TDA
Chemosphere, Vol. 30, (11), 1995, 2209-17.

Bailey RE; Kitahara H; Gilbert DS
Environmental aspects of TDI
Prog.Rubber Plastics Technol., Vol. 8, (1), 1992, 28-48.

Gilbert DS
Fate of TDI and MDI in air, soil and water
Paper, SPI/FSK Polyurethanes World Congress, Aachen, 29 Sept. -2 Oct., 1987, 166-72. Also published in J.Cell.Plast., Vol. 24, (2), 1988, 178-92.

Becker KH; Bastian V; Klein T
The reactions of OH radicals with toluene diisocyanate, toluenediamine and methylene dianiline under simulated atmospheric conditions
J.Photochem.Photobiol., A: Chem., Vol. 45, 1988, 195-205.

Nutt AR; Skidmore DW
Recovery of chlorofluorocarbon 11 by activated carbon scrubbing on a polyurethane foam slabstock plant
Cell.Pol., Vol. 6, 1987, 62-78.

Urano K; Yamamoto E
Removal and recovery of Freon 11 vapor from a polyurethane foam factory by activated carbon
In: International Progress in Polyurethanes, Vol. 4, 1985, Ashida K; Frisch KC eds., 35-55.

Urano K; Yamamoto E
A treatment process of waste gas containing tolylenediisocyanate by adsorption with activated carbon
Ind.Eng.Chem.Proc.Des.Dev., Vol. 23, 1984, 665-669.

Martens R; Domsch KH
Microbial degradation of polyurethane foams and isocyanate based polyureas in different media
Wat.Air & Soil Poll., Vol. 15, 1981, 503-509.


Deams D and Collins M
PU and fire safety management.
PU Magazine, Vol. 7, 2010, 336-41

Antonatus E
Comparison of different analytical methods for the determination of HCN in combustion gases generated from polyurethane and sheep wool
Proc. Interflam 2007: 11th International Conference on Fire Science and Engineering, London, 3-5 Sept., 2007,1637-44

Marlair G; Prager FH; Sand H
The behaviour of commercially important di-isocyanates in fire conditions. Part 2: Polymeric diphenyl methane-4,4'-di-isocyanate (PMDI)
Fire & Materials, Vol. 18, 1994, 17-30.

Marlair G; Prager FH; Sand H
The behaviour of commercially important di-isocyanates in fire conditions. Part 1: Toluene di-isocyanate (TDI)
Fire & Materials, Vol. 17, 1993, 91-102.

Jeffs GMF; Klingelhöfer HG; Prager FH; Rosteck H
Fire-performance of a ventilated facade insulated with a B2-classified rigid polyurethane foam
Fire & Materials, Vol. 10, 1986, 79-89.


Sebroski JR; Miller JW; Spence M
Evaluation of modified FLEC® cell and micro chamber prototype for monitoring methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) emissions
Paper and poster presented at Indoor Air, Hong Kong, 7-12 Jul., 2014.

Vangronsveld E; Berckmans S; Spence M
Comparison of solvent/derivatization agent systems for determination of extractable toluene diisocyanate from flexible polyurethane foam
Ann.Occup.Hyg., Vol 57, (5), 2013, 640-649

Vangronsveld E; Berckmans S; Spence M
Toluene diisocyanate emission to air and migration to a surface from a flexible polyurethane foam
Ann.Occup.Hyg., Vol 57, (5), 2013, 650-661

Mormann W; Frank P; Schupp T; Seel K
Reactions of N-acetylcysteine adducts of aromatic (di)isocyanates with functional groups of organic molecules: transcarbamoylation reactions in aqueous buffer and in an organic solvent
EXCLI Journal, Vol.7, 2008, 19-43

Mormann W; Vaquero RL; Seel K
Interactions of aromatic isocyanates with N-acetyl-L-cysteine under physiological conditions: formation of conjugates, ureas and amines.
EXCLI Journal, Vol.5, 2006, 191-208

Hext PM; Booth K; Dharmarajan V; Karoly WJ; Parekh PP; Spence M
A comparison of the sampling efficiencies of a range of atmosphere samplers when collecting polymeric diphenylmethane di-isocyanate ( MDI ) aerosols
Appl.Occup.Environ.Hyg., Vol 18, (5), 2003, 346-357

Lesage J; Paradis J; Obarewicz S; Ostiguy C; Karoly W; Van Tra H
Evaluation of the SureSpot direct-reading instrument for the determination of polymeric MDI aerosols
Appl.Occup.Environ.Hyg., Vol.17, (8), 2002, 543-50

Nakaaki K; Imano N; Satou T; Moriya K
Effective industrial hygiene monitoring of airborne TDI with HPLC and tape monitor
Sagyo Kankyo, Vol.23, (1), 2002, 1-7

Lesage J; Paradis J; Obarewicz S; Ostiguy C; Van Tra H
Développement d'une méthodologie d'évaluation d'appareils à lecture directe pour la détermination de prépolymères d'isocyanates sous forme aérosol
Rapport R-274, Jun., 2001. Institut de recherche en santé et en sécuritédu travail du Québec.

Karoly B; Lesage J; Paradis J
Use of direct reading instruments for measuring airborne concentrations of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI)
Paper, Symposium on Isocyanates: Sampling, Analysis and Health Effects, Orlando, 26-27 Oct., 2000. ASTM STP 1408, Lesage J et al. eds.

Rando RJ; Poovey HG; Mokadam DR
Laboratory comparison of sampling methods for reactive isocyanate vapors and aerosols
Paper, Symposium on Isocyanates: Sampling, Analysis and Health Effects, Orlando, 26-27 Oct., 2000. ASTM STP 1408, Lesage J et al. eds.

Spence MW; Landry TD; Huff DW
Evaluation of the effectiveness of air-purifying respirator cartridges in removing MDI aerosols from air
Proc.Polyurethanes World Congress, Amsterdam, Sep. 29-Oct. 1, 1997, 603-611.

Bugler J; Maddison P; Hope SJ; Glover R; Mills IG; Nutt AR; Wright MD
Tertiary amine and ethanolamine catalysts in the polyurethane foam industry: new methods of detection and results of personal sampling in nine UK flexible foam factories
Cell.Polym., Vol. 11, (3), 1992, 171-200.

Brokenshire JL; Dharmarajan V; Coyne LB; Keller J
Near real time monitoring of TDI vapour using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS)
J.Cell.Plast., Vol. 26, Mar., 1990, 123-42.

Conte A; Cossi G
Gas chromatographic determination of free TDI in flexible urethane foams
J.Chrom., Vol. 213, 1981, p. 162-5.